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Features of the single-stroke engine
1. Within two four-stroke rotations there are eight single-stroke working cycles, each of which has the same duration relative to the rotational speed as the four-stroke cycle.
2. There are no sealing strips at all, therefore no problems with wear. Because of the simple geometry, the engine is extremely suitable for technical ceramics.
3. There are no lubrication problems in the explosion area, the compressor is lubricatedwith the bio-oil fuel or with diesel oil mixtures.
4. Wear and service life correspond to the service life of the synchronizing gears and of the friction bearings.
5. Because of the uniform load on the rotor owing to the symmetrical explosions, it may be taken into account to replace the friction bearings by cheaper ball or roller bearings.
6. The rotating engine parts, rotary piston and sealing rolls, rotate without contacting and without any unbalance.
7. A separate flywheel is not necessary because the driving pulses are performed on the rotor circumference ( 4 to 8 times per rotation).
8. Dead centers are replaced by turning points which are passed without reduction of piston speed.
9. The segment lifting cylinders and the rotary piston wings are used twice within one rotation, which doubles the performance per unit of displacement and reduces the cold surfaces of the cylinder wall by half.
10. The segment lifting cylinders and the rotary piston wings are operated with an incan- descent layer of 500 to 800 °C (metal or ceramic).
11. Piston and sealing rolls rotate without contacting and without sealing strips.
12. Sealing is ensured by the burnt-off material. Any excess is worn off per rotation (different peripheral speeds).
13. Sealing in the cold compressor is effected by the injected fuel forming a constant oil film which builds up an oil sealing bead on the contact surfaces during rotation.
14. Compression is limited to 2 to max. 6 bar. This is also the charging pressure.
15. With low performance the engine is charged with 2 bar only, which saves compression energy.
16. Ignition of diesel oil is also possible at 2 bar, if necessary by means of spark plugs during start. With hot chamber operation, the process takes place continuously.
17. Vegetable oil is the preferred fuel for single-stroke engines; biogas mixtures, waste incineration gases, but also other weak gases can be used as well. Alternatively, heavy oils, diesel oil and natural gas are also suitable.
18. Pure oxyhydrogen as an alternative for the fuel cell can be converted into electricity at a high and better efficiency than that of the fuel cell.
19. Sufficient fresh-air supply is ensured by increasing the compressor volume against the combustion compartment volume (no other supercharger is required).
20. Air is dosed to fuel, not fuel to air.
21. There is no gas change. Each explosion process is a self-contained process.
22. The process of combustion by explosion takes place in the hot cell at a temperature level between 400 °C and 800 °C.
23. But also in this case, compression is cold and combustion by explosion is hot.
24. No lubrication of the rotary piston in the combustion compartment is necessary because the aim is to keep the rotary bodies at red heat only on the surface.
25. Lateral lubrication of the rotating elements can be achieved by the fuel used, with bio fuels being more suitable. The fuels lubricate laterally and are then burnt. A short self-renewal ..
26. The torque is transmitted to the engine shaft symmetrically on both sides and vibrationfree. The operation of the engine can be compared to that of a three-phase motor, for 3000 possible explosion pulses come close to alternating current of 50 cps.
27. The fuels are burnt by explosion according to their natural properties, without disturbing ignition delay and upper temperature limit.
28. The time saved by explosion is used for expansion, which comes up to an extension of the combustion time.
29. It is possible to use spark ignition, also permanent glow plug ignition depending on the fuel or continuous self-ignition in the hot chamber.
30. Mixture concentrations for better ignition quality are unnecessary because the ignition quality is assisted by the overcritical collision of the charges and by the hot cylinder wall.
31. There are no reactions by suction and exhaust vibrations because the working stroke is completed before the exhaust opening and residual gases have been exhausted before.
32. The engine can be operated fully heat-insulated.
33. Recuperative preheating of suction air is possible with the single-stroke engine, which results in faster explosions so that the rotational speed can be increased without the disadvantage of decreasing efficiency.
34. When the suction air is heated, the fuel is adjusted to the reduced oxygen content of the compressed hot air. The reduced performance per stroke is compensated by the higher speed.
35. When the suction air is preheated by the exhaust gases, these can be reduced down to the dew point limit, which has a positive effect on the efficiency.
36. There are no problems with residual gases after the combustion by explosion because all residual CO and HC gases are also burnt owing to the explosion at a high temperature.
37. The relatively long four-stroke flame front combustion is replaced by eight or sixteen - by at least eight to sixteen times shorter - explosions which release the heat content of the small fuel portion in the 500 °C to 800 °C hot explosion chamber very effectively as total quantity of heat.
38. Owing to the ceramic construction, the single-stroke engine can be operated advanta- geously at high temperatures. Cylinder and piston are made of porous silicon carbide or nitride ceramics with poor heat conductivity.
39. Charging within one rotation is made at a charging pressure of 4 bar via 8 lateral ports so that the mixture columns in the middle of the cylinder collide at supersonic speed. Reduction of the charging volume per charging channel by 1/4 furthers the charging process.
40. The unused residual heat is small at an efficiency of 80%. Because of this lower heating inside the engine, the engine need not be cooled, but can be completely insulated (hot- chamber radial pulse turbine).
41. Adjusted torque owing to speed-dependent charging: at high speed the torque is low, at low speed the torque is high. A very good constellation for an engine.
42. Because of the explosion and the very small exploding quantities of mixture, the single-stroke process is so quick that there are hardly any thermal losses.
43. The charging moment is the explosion moment during 1/3 of the stroke, expansion during 2/3 of the stroke and exhaust. Simplification of ignition control.